Mongolia is landlocked as the country is bordered by Russia and China. The capital of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar which is also the largest city of the country. Mongolia has been under the rule of different nomadic empires which includes Gokturks, Rouran, Xianbei and Xiongnu. In the year 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongo Empire. According to the evidences present in the pre-historic sites of Mongolia, it is found that the land was inhabited by Homo erectus about 800,000 years back. During Upper Paleolithic period, modern humans inhabited Mongolia for about 40,000 years back. After the Qing Dynasty’s fall, Mongolia which was under the rule of Bogd Khaan declared as independent in the year 1911.
Mongolia is a republic with parliamentary system. President of the country is directly elected and the constitution of Mongolia provides full freedom of religion, expression and other such rights. Mongolia has multi-party system. The role of the president is mainly symbolic but the president can stop the decisions made by the parliament. Mongolia is separated in to twenty one ‘aimags’ and all these ‘aimags’ are again divided in to 329 ‘sums’. The economy of Mongolia mainly depends on mining and agriculture. Mongolia is rich in resources like coal, copper, tungsten, gold, tin and molybdenum.
The population of Mongolia is 2,951,786 according to the census of 2007. Mongolia has a young population which affects the economy of the Mongolia. About 59% of the people are below the age of 30 and 27% are under 14 years of age. The population of Mongolia is more urbanized and 85% of the people are Ethnic Mongols with Khalkha as well as other groups. Khalkha Mongolian is Mongolia’s official language. Other languages are Russian, Korean, English, German and Chinese. Half of the population of Mongolia is following Tibetan Buddhism. Other religions are Christian, Shamanist, Muslim and Baha’i.
Mongolia possess several natural wonders and diversity in geography. Several tourist attractions are there in Mongolia making tourism as its important industry. One among the important tourist spots of Mongolia is Gobi desert which is fifth largest in the world. Karakorum is the pre-historic capital of Mongol Empire and here you can find the largest and first monastery of Mongolia. Altai Mountains also draw attention of great number of tourists which consists of Golden Mountains of Altai, World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The region consists of tourist spots such as Mount Belukha, Lake Telestskoye, Altai Natural Reserve and Katun Natural Reserve.
Hustai National Park is the famous national park of Mongolia where you can see wild horses, gazelles and deer. Khuiten peak is the highest peak of Mongolia is also an important tourist spot. Lake Huvsgul is another popular tourist spot for sport fishing and fishing. The mountains surrounding the lake are the home of different species of mammals like marten, lynx, elk, reindeer, beaver, ibex, wolf, argali, moose, musk deer and brown bear. Some of the monasteries and temples worth visiting are Gandan Monastery, Erdene Zu Monastery, Amarbayasgalant monastery, Manzushir monastery, Tuvkhun temple, Ongi temple and Gunj temple.